The International journal of social psychiatry. The prevention of burnout constitutes a great challenge for those responsible for the healthcare Das Krankenhaus im Wandel der Versorgungslandschaft , p.
Medizinische Klinik Munich, Germany : Abstract: Background and purpose: Health services research is gaining increasing importance in the field of public health. To present its activities and findings more clearly, the "Clearingstelle Versorgungsforschung NRW" clearinghouse health services research Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a transformational leadership style on employee well-being. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, medizinische Psychologie.
Abstract: Work engagement has been proven to be a viable indicator of physical and mental well-being at work. Research findings have shown a link between work engagement and both individual and organizational resources. The aim of the present study is to test the Abstract: Abstract Background This study analyses the effect of active participation in a sports club, physical activity and social networks on the development of lung cancer in patients who smoke. Our hypothesis is that study participants who lack social networks Background: Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide.
One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. Results: The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains.
Objective: To examine the relationships among employees' emotional exhaustion, positive and negative work-home interaction, and perceived work-life balance culture in companies. A structural equation modeling analysis was performed. Results: A company culture perceived by employees as supportive of their work-life balance was found to have both a direct negative effect on emotional exhaustion and an indirect negative effect meditated by negative work-home interaction.
In addition, whereas negative work-home interaction associated positively with emotional exhaustion, positive work-home interaction had no significant effect. Conclusions: The direct and indirect relationship between work-life balance culture and emotional exhaustion has practical implications for health promotion in companies. The prevention of burnout constitutes a great challenge for those responsible for the healthcare system. Aims: Research into the relationship between social capital in hospitals and the occurrence of emotional exhaustion in clinicians is still at an early stage.
In order to present transparent and comprehensible results, the scale values are reported as mean values. The renunciation of presenting the values in percentages was done on purpose to avoid loss of information when combining sectors for calculating the percentage values. The meaning of a outcome due to the indicated low or high values is related to the context.
It is a great advantage of COPSOQ considering recent theories to measure psychosocial stress and strain at workplace as extensively as possible. Additionally, the authors included questions on recent main training courses by IG Metall. The authors requested that unlisted training courses be noted in free comments. It should be mentioned that questions related only to attendance, not to the quality of the courses. The cross-sectional survey was executed by the authors and supported by the trade union IG Metal.
The board of directors of IG Metal approved the questionnaire in October In order to perform the survey, 50 administrative centres of the union send the questionnaire with a covering letter of the first author and a letter of recommendation from IG Metal to work councils committees via email and in a paper and pencil version. At the end of the survey period a reminder was send out. Participation was voluntary and anonymous; no personal data, such as company or address, were collected. Austrian and German ethic committee checked the need of ethical approval.
Works councils sent their completed questionnaires in an anonymous envelope directly to the first author, some used a scanned version and sent it to the author by e-mail. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS In addition, a minimum distinction of means by five points or more set the lower limit for a significant difference. Altogether, works councils took part in the survey. The sizes of the companies employing participants varied greatly. So most of the participants are employed by companies with a workforce of — or over 2, Due to their occupation, participants were grouped: are full-time works council members and are volunteer works councils.
Furthermore, members aged 45 and older are well represented. Most of the participants work full-time, 20 of the participants work between 15 and 34 hours per week and only 2 indicate a working time of 15 hours or less per week. It has to be said as a weakness of this research that the authors were not able to measure the response rate of the questionnaire due to the fact that the administrative centres did not distributed information about the number or the structure of contacted work councils committees.
The low number of participants could be explained by different reasons. One possible explanation for the relatively low number of responses is the effect, not predictable in advance, of the election of a new IG Metal board of directors at the end of October The free text statements on working conditions could also be an explanation: Many works councils indicated demotivation as a result of deterioration of working conditions in the companies e.
Another reason could be the questionnaire itself, its length means that it takes between 20 and 25 minutes to complete. It should be noted that the indication of the signs does not imply a positive or negative meaning. The interpretation refers to the scales' content. Comparison of the study group with the general COPSOQ mean for all professions reveals both, significant and relevant deviations in some aspects.
Indications for higher strain and stress values were found on the scales: emotional demands, work-privacy conflict, role conflicts, mobbing, cognitive stress symptoms and burnout. Unfavourable results were also obtained in the form of the lower mean values for works council members for the aspects: quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and general health.
From the perspective of works council members there are also positive findings in higher mean values for influence at work, quantity of social relations. There are relatively positive values for quantitative demands compared to the general mean and to non-leadership administrative workers and commitment to the workplace compared to both groups of administrative workers. Analysing the different mean values it is interesting to reveal a general trend of psychosocial stress and strain among different professions and to take a closer view where there are similarities and differences.
It is to see that the profession of work councils proceed similar to employees working in the field of administration and management in a leading position but indicating higher deviations and in most of the scales higher demands for this profession. The great advantage of this questionnaire is the identification of different aspects of stress and strain and providing a comprehensive data setting enabling comparison of different professions.
Due to the fact that work councils have complex tasks, the authors analysed the responsibilities of this specific profession. According to the assignment of job classifications KdB92 of the German Federal Statistical Office, the participation rights, intermediate functions and partly managerial tasks there are many comparable responsibilities to employees working in administration leadership roles.
Due to the fact that volunteer work councils represent the interests of employees in addition to their daily mostly mentally work, the authors decided to use the profession of employees working in administration in a non-leadership role as a further reference group. The analysis of psychosocial workload of work councils and reference groups revealed new and interesting information.
Due to the outcomes there is a general trend of psychosocial stress and strain among the analysed professions. This is not surprising, as the consequences of this trend is a part of the self-image of "Human being in profession". A major finding is, by analysing the trend in detail it is to see that work councils proceed similarly to employees working in administration in a leadership role and confirm so the selection of reference professions. The second major finding of this research is that this study enables comparison between occupational groups and work councils and furthermore the determination of specific demands and deviations to reference groups.
As one outcome, the perception of quality of leadership differs between volunteer and full-time work councils. Full-time work councils form the opposite. They elect the chairman for a certain time and are subordinated on his decisions, but it is to say that there is no comparable setting to normal employees.
Translation of «Helfersyndrom» into 25 languages
It seems that the lack of framework of organisation leads to indication of disadvantageous values. In both scales work councils are significant disadvantageous. This could be explained due to the integration of volunteer work councils into the working process. The summary termination must also be approved by the works council or — if the council does not agree - confirmed by the labour court. Due to the fact that the election period is four years, this limited period of protection may lead to a fear of reprisals and loss of employment after membership of the works council expires.
Also workers who are afraid of losing their job might put themselves in a prime position for election. The study results confirm the often reported high demands on works councils. The changing process of organised decentralisation poses new challenges for works councils in the system of industrial relations. Decentralisation leads to a loss of power for unions, because non-organised decentralisation leads to the use of derogations for a rising number of companies.
This means a weakening of the protection through organised collective bargaining and shifts responsibilities from the level of collective bargaining to the level of plant bargaining, meaning to the profession of works councils. The study results reveal positive findings on the scales: influence at work, degree of freedom, social relations, development and commitment.
They can claim information and in managerial, technical and human resource decisions the management has to consult works councils. So works councils do have a significant influence on work, widespread social relations, are responsible for development and being elected to represent employee interests creates high commitment to the workplace by the necessary high degree of freedom granted by WCA to fulfil their tasks. The major strength of this research is a comprehensive survey addressing the psychosocial workload within the profession of works councils.
The extensive theoretical approach and design of this validated and psychometrically tested comprehensive questionnaire was used for the quantitative investigation of the psychosocial work factors in works councils. With more than participants, this database is sufficient for an initial evaluation of their specific working situation. The results enable initial insights into the psychosocial workplace situation of this specific group to identify exact stress and strain factors.
Furthermore, the outcome provides a comprehensive data setting for further research. In line with Theorell et al. So the use of just a single data source is a general limitation. The cross-linking of different survey approaches and data settings on psychosocial workload would lead to advantages. However, these multi-source studies require much greater resources and different assessment methods such as a personal examination performed by a physician.
In the field of psychosocial factors, many aspects can only be assessed by subjective methods, asking the employees directly. We agree with Kompier that works councils are professionals on their job and are aware of the opportunities and threats for this occupation. It has to be said as a proviso that the authors were not able to measure a response rate and that the COPSOQ database is built on collected data from surveys performed by the research institute with other organisations, so participants may not be representative of works councils and the working population in general. Furthermore, the meaning and relationship of the person performing the research to the participants is important.
So the rate of participation correlates strongly to both, the level of activation and motivation. As the survey was sent out by the administrative centres of trade union IG Metal to work council committees, this could lead to some bias:. At first, it could be assumed that the administrative centers contacted closer related committees.
Being focussed on trade union, this group also could attend more often on training courses. As participation was voluntarily, it could be that primary these work councils attended, who suffer from psychosocial stress and strain. Additionally it is to say that, due to the setting of the survey, a partly selected and small sample is compared to relatively extensive groups. Mostly many clinicians, educators and people misunderstand the term burnout. They are thinking that burnout is a disorder like a major depression episode or schizophrenia.
In the case of educators it does mean, that they avoid there pupils, learners or followers. They try to get emotional distance to their stimuli, which elicit distress. A consequence of depersonalization is the decrease of quality in the relation with the counterpart. In Maslach and Jacksons description of the Burnout process, two aspects are more important than the other.
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Maslach and Leiter confirm that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are the core-elements of burnout. The decrease of professional performance is seen as a consequence. Job related stress or emotional exhaustion are something common, but who gets in a burnout process? In many models, burnout is described as a process, but the question why somebody slides into a burnout process remains unsettled.
The important moment in burnout process is the crossover form emotional exhaustion to depersonalization.
At this moment, severe occupational stress becomes a burnout process. The belief to do something, what nobody else is able to do, mobilizes the last resources and energy until people crash. The credo to be somebody special whiteout performance limits is stabilizing a weak self or ego.
That such an archaic imagine becomes a stabilizing function is evident.
Psychosocial workload and stress in the workers’ representative
This investigation deals with both phenomena, Burnout and emotional experience, which interact and become an important meaning. The questionnaire is composed by 25 items, which shall be rated on a Likert Scale. The MBI evidences a total score and four scores on different subscales. For the assessment of Emotional Experience is used Benecke and colleagues questionnaire to measure emotional experience and emotion regulation EER.
The questionnaire is divided into two parts. The first part assesses the emotional experience. In addition to basic emotions the questionnaire elevates emotions with clinical relevance. The second part deals with emotion regulation. The items in the first are clustered in passive-negative emotions anxiety, shame, grief, loneliness, guilt … , active-negative emotions disgust, anger, contempt, envy, impulsivity … and positive emotions joy, love, interest, surprise. The second part emotion regulation is not used in this study.
Meaning of "Helfersyndrom" in the German dictionary
Among psychometric questionnaires, sociodemographic variables were assessed. Participants Subjects were recruited in child and youth services, daycare-centers, primary and nursery schools in northern Italy. In the sample were included people, which work as educators, teachers or pedagogics. A total of subjects female, 31 male aged Table 1.
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Results For the MBI-subscale emotional exhaustion is calculated an alpha of. For the EER subscale anxiety is calculated an alpha of. Table 2. Discussion If we look at the alphas in the EER-questionnaire, we can affirm that actually alphas are satisfying, what indicates that the questionnaire is reliable. With regard to MBI, on the contrary, is calculated a good alpha for emotional exhaustion, and low alphas for depersonalization, personal accomplishment and involvement, which points on an unfavorable measuring accuracy Buhner, If we look at the results of correlation analyses, a complex imagine will be given.
A lot of emotions correlates with more than one MBI-scale. These findings stand most likely for that burnout in general is characterized by a kind of emotional state of emergency Burisch, Nonetheless should be tried the attempt to contextualize findings with theoretical considerations. Data show briefly, that emotions become an importance in the specification of the different phases or stages of burnout process. The appearance of negative emotions like anxiety, fear of annihilation, grief, anger, lifelessness, lack of control and excitability at the same time with emotional exhaustion elaborates this stage accurately and gives an important starting point for clinicians because emotions result from specific evaluation processes in specific situations Lazarus, If we look at the stage after emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, data evidence the closeness to emotions like contempt, disgust, anxiety, shame, anger, excitability and lack of control.
This kind of emotions activate behavior patterns characterized by withdrawal or avoidance. Especially the emotions disgust, which causes a removal for a disgusting object, and anger, which force persons to get someone out of the way, are typical elements of hostile behavior and make it impossible to create a positive working atmosphere in a profession, in which the interpersonal relationship is so important.
It is particularly revealing that also loneliness correlates with depersonalization. A possible justification for this could be, that after a heavy burden people avoid other people, because from their point of view, the others are the reason for their stress experience and so they keep other people out of the way. Another significant problem in burnout processes is involvement. Correlations show that especially guilt, envy and jealousy are relevant side effects. Emotions like guilt, envy and jealousy could result from a too close relationship or the traversing of ego- borders.
Negative correlations with personal accomplishment and happiness, interest as well as love and affection illustrate a loss of identification with the job.