Il settimo giuramento (Liberamente) (Italian Edition)

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Please know that I exhort you to teach these things so that you do not forget them; also, sometimes you will have to re-read this book so that you will not forget. Do as the proverb says: he who pays well learns well, and he who pays poorly learns poorly. Therefore, teach well those who pay well, because you will conscientiously repay them. It is a great sin of the soul not to teach well those who pay their debt to their teacher. Please note that it is needful that you go to find your enemy with one of those, going to play that has an opinion of you. When you are close by to him, you will get into the porta di ferro alta and he will be as you or in sopra braccio, or guard ia alta.

Then you will push a ponta in falsa at him to the outside of his sword going strongly against his left temple with left foot stepping forward with the attack. For your defense you will hurl your left foot back and throw a roverso scannato a roverso that cuts the thro at to the head and arm in the manner that the sword goes into the coda lunga e stretta. Then if your enemy responds to your head or to the leg you will defend with a rising falso traversato accompanied with the brochiero.

In a time you will slice with a roverso to the right leg and for your defense hurl the right foot behind the left. You will then cut with a fendente roverso at the rim of the brochiero with the left foot coming close by the right. Here you will embellish your play in a useful manner with chioccare e montare with a ponta in the act of a montante that does not pass into said porta di ferro alta as aforementioned. If you were in the said porta di ferro alta, and the opponent attacked you with a thrust, in that tempo you will perform an elsa e fugge; your sword should end up in porta di ferro larga.

Without stopping, you will turn a roverso in coda lunga e distesa and in this manner you will frustrate his design and cause him some harm. After the said roverso, you will withdraw the left leg behind the right, embellishing the play in the usual fashion. Elza e fugie is when your opponent delivers you a dangerous blow as you are in porta di ferro alta or stretta or larga, or sopra il braccio, or in coda lunga e stretta, or in chinghiara porta di ferro - no matter what posture you are in, as long as it is a low guard.

In the time that he delivers the blow, you will give a strong upward falso [to his sword] followed by a mandritto fendente [to his body], at the same time pulling your right leg behind the left. This is called elza e fugie. Please know that this technique is a good counter against one who wants to penetrate your guard therefore make a note of it and be careful. As you are in the said porta di ferro alta and if your opponent is right-foot forward no matter in whathigh guard , you should pass with the left foot toward his right side and while you step you should feint a tramazzone, then push a thrust to his face, as you cover [your blow] with the brocchiero.

As he draws his sword to the outside in order to parry your thrust, you should pull your sword under his and push another thrust between his sword and his buckler. This thrust should be done upward toward his face. For your defense, you should cut with a roverso fendente to the rim of the buckler, at the same time pulling your right foot behind the left, then pulling the left again behind the right. Here, you will embellish the play in the usual fashion, that is by means of chioccare [striking the hub of the buckler with a cut as he describes in another chapter?

In this manner, you will return in the same position described above. Being in said porta di ferro alta as he is, take notice and guard the sword hand as he will want to pass with the left foot with the look of making a tramazzon in order to push a thrust at you. Then you will escape with your right leg going behind the left with a traverse. In this escape you will throw two, strong, tramazzoni at his sword hand and in this manner you will lower your guard into the cinghiara porta di ferro. For your defense when he then attacks you, immediately step forward with the right foot and throw a rising falso with a mandritto tondo under the arm together with a roverso.

Here you will embellish your play, that is you will cut with another roverso to the rim of the brochiero throwing the right foot behind the left, the left being close by the right. Then you will use a chioccare di brochiero or you will rise a thrust as aforementioned and you will go into the porta di ferro alta with your arm and legs well formed.

If you are in the said porta di ferro and your enemy is in the guardia alta as you, or else he attacks upwards, in this time that he raises then pretend to thrust at his face with the left foot passing forward. In this passing step you will engage the sword with the hand of your brochiero in the style of a spada in armi.

In the same time you will give a calzo kick with the right foot to the petenecchio groin or return again behind the left not stopping the left but giving a fendente to his head. In this manner your sword will go into the porta di ferro stretta. Then if your enemy responds with an attack you will strike said with a rising falso followed with a mandritta to the leg and a roverso to the face stepping in this attack a little forward with the right foot. For your defense you will step back with the right foot and you will cut with a fendente roverso at the rim of the brochiero and throwing the left leg close by the right and in this manner you will embellish your play.

That is in chioccare and thrusting upward as aforementioned. You will end in the porta di ferro alta. If your opponent feints at you with the said thrust as you are in the guardia alta or if your sword has reached a high position after you performed a montante , I advise that you are especially careful never to take your eye away from his sword-hand. This way, you will not move as a consequence of his feint. If he tried to kick you with his right foot, you can counter his move in two ways.

Firstly, as he lifted his right leg to kick you, you could strike him in the shin of the said right leg with the rim of your buckler, as your sword parries his fendente to the head. This is one of the counters you could perform. The other is that if he intended to pass with his left foot as he feinted a push, or if he actually intended to push, with that motion you would hurl your right foot behind the left as he pushes. At the same time, you would thrust at him in montante fashion. This will proceed upwards towards his face, and your sword will end in cinghiara porta di ferro alta.

From here, you will embellish the play. You will withdraw your left foot near the right, then you will be able to step out with said left foot and strike your brochiero and go up in the usual fashion to porta di ferro alta. Being as aforementioned in said porta di ferro alta and your enemy being as you, then you will approach him close by and you will throw a tramazzon to his head.

In this manner your enemy will defend with the sword and brochiero at the right side of the head. Then during his defense you will abandon your sword and brochiero dropping them to the ground and you will grab with your right hand his brochiero and with the left you will grab his sword. That is to the inside of the brochiero. You will then turn your hand to a roversa. In this mode you will draw out his weapons from his hands without failing. Now being in the porta di ferro alta as is said, and your enemy throws a tramazzon to make you parry, I want you to defend with your sword and brochiero together with your arms extended out forward.

And when he has hurled his sword and brochiero down for engaging you by hand, you will remain on your guard for he will throw his hands and your right leg will move with a gran passo behind the left and you will throw a fendente to the head. You will then be in the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta and in this manner your enemy will be amazed without a weapon and you will have given him a hit to the head and note this.

If you are in porta di ferro alta, or stretta or are in coda lunga e stretta, here I want you to push a thrust with the left foot forward to the outside of his sword to his face with the intention that he is in the porta di ferro alta or sopra braccie. And this he will do in order to get outside with a falso to the sword as to parry your thrust Then as your falso touches his you will engage his sword with the hand of your brochiero on the inside. In this manner you will give a twist downwards and you will have the sword in hand. And giving it with power you will know that you will not fail.

If you are in the porta di ferro alta or in the sopra braccie and your enemy pushes a thrust to the outside of your face with his left foot going to presa, I want you in this push that you accompany the false edge of your sword with his while not moving the feet. W hen he hurls the hand of his brochiero to engage the sword you will in the same time slice a cut at his face and together with a tramazzon your right foot will follow in a manner that you end in porta di ferro cinghiara stretta. In this manner do not go to presa and you will have cut his face, and the tramazzon will strike his right hand.

With this you will embellish the play in the manner aforementioned. Being still in the porta di ferro alta or stretta and if your enemy throws a cut to your head, I want you to throw your left foot strongly forward to the right and take the attack on the sword with your brochiero accompanying it.

And in this parry you will turn the hand to the inside and engage his sword with your hand of your buckler and give a turn downwards to take his sword from his hand and give a thrust to his chest or to the face. And in this you will not fail as I said before. If you are in the guardia alta or in the porta di ferro and being agente, that is the principal one to attack with mandritti or tramazzoni, in this I want to warn you that when you do such edge cuts or tramazzoni that he will want to come to grips with you.

Know for certain when you throw a right edge cut follow it quickly with a roverso with the right foot following behind the left. In this you will end in the coda lunga e alta. In this manner he will not be able to come to grips. Then when you throw a tramazzon at someone, I would exhort you to not throw just one, but always two or three. Do not remain still for you always throw another one following and so end in the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta. This thing do so you will not be griped and you will be certain.

If you are in the coda lunga e stretta or in the porta di ferro alta as aforementioned, or in the guardia alta and your enemy is moving into the guardia alta, in the same time regains the guardia alta then you will pass your left foot forward and push a thrust in falso to his right temple. In the same time you will feint with a mandritto to his left side with your right foot opposite his left side and then you will give a roverso to the right thigh.

For your defense you will hurl your right foot behind the left and cut a roverso fendente to the rim of the your brochiero and here you will embellish the play in a useful manner. Now I want to give you a beautiful counter to one who attacks you with a tramazzon when you are in the porta di ferro larga, or stretta or alta with the intention of counterstepping with the left foot traversing against your right side and beating your sword or head.

Watch well for when he countersteps with the left foot and throws the tramazzon you will withdraw your right leg a little and your sword arm. More when considering that said tramazzon is not able to hit you. And immediately upon the passing of the tramazzon step with your right foot and give a roverso tondo to the face, cutting in said roverso a fendente roverso to the rim of the buckler and the right foot will go behind the left. In this manner you will embellish the play as aforementioned. Again, I want to give you another counter for one who throws a roverso at the leg.

When you take up the sopra braccio and one attacks, you will move your left foot opposite the right side of your enemy and put the flat of your sword under his roverso and then you will give a roverso to his neck or head and settle into the coda lunga e alta and you will be in order to parry his attack. Ancora io te voglio dare un altro contrario per uno che tresse de roverso per gamba quando tu fosse sopra braccio.

And still in said roverso to the leg, step with the right leg over the left and you leaving will let the roverso pass. And you will move the right leg forward and give a roverso to his right temple and your sword will go into the coda lunga e stretta and you will settle in a well formed manner with the arms extended. You should know that in this roverso to the leg, I want you to pull your right foot close by the left and said roverso will pass and in passing you will put the left foot forward opposite his right side and you will give a roverso spinto to his right temple.

In this manner you will return to the coda lunga e alta. Know this for pulling the right foot where the left is in such time, putting forward if it demands a disguising of the feet, then note for another turn. When you com e into the porta di ferro alta and your enemy is in the same guard, I want you to strongly touch the false edge to his false edge. Then you will pass your left foot strongly opposite his right side and push a thrust strongly to his face turning the wrist downwards and your right edge will be against his false edge and your hand will rise strongly.

In this manner you will raise his sword hand and you will then come to grips with the hand of the buckler on the inside as aforementioned. You will then remove the sword from the hand as you wish. You should know when you are in the porta di ferro alta and your enemy is in the same, and you are being patiente, that is to see what your enemy may want to do, I want you to remain attentive.

For when you touch false edge to false edge you should watch his sword hand well. You should do this for the reason of said presa or another attack. Seeing the pass of said right foot to the outside with the sword thrusting to disconcert you and to make follie of your right arm: here he gives consideration on giving you said presa or another attack.

W hen he makes the pass, you will throw your right foot in a gran passo to the rear of the left and you will make a half turn of the hand in the manner that you place your true edge to his false edge and you will be in the coda lunga e alta. In this manner he will not displease you and you will do well.

Please note that everything you see written from here on that is, starting from the third assault pertains to the half-sword. It is nonetheless true that these things can only be performed false edge against false edge. Some of them can be performed from a greater distance [from the opponent], others closer. However, they all pertain to the half sword or to the close [measure] as said. I also wish you to know that all this pushing of the half-sword of which I will speak from hear on in the third assault can only be performed with the part of the sword between the tip and the false edge.

For this reason, these techniques are called false-edge stretti. You know from the third assault as well as from other things I showed you what can be done with the false edge against false edge. However, please note that, to be true to the rule, I have only included teachings that are effective, concise and useful to your students. I am well aware that, were one to include absolutely everything, ten books bigger than this one would not suffice. This if filo dritto in Italian. Although, as you know, the art of writing is not established by those who understand our discipline and who are willing to stir their step!

Anyway, for now I will say no more. I want to start the section about true edge against true edge, so now please be patient [and hear me out]. Know that wanting to go and find the true edge to true edge, there is a need that you be in a low guard, preferably the porta di ferro stretta or alta, or in the coda lunga e alta. Also in the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta or larga or even if you go with him in the guardia distesa; nevertheless if in one of these guards, you will see here what is written: The first need for going true-edge to true-edge is that you go into a porta di ferro alta or stretta, in coda lunga e stretta and in some other posture that you know.

And this I will say, that in this manner you will enter into the coda lunga e alta for it guards well. Still if he does the same thing with other arms, especially two handed sword or single sword, or sword and large brochiero or targa or rotella. I am not saying that you can use all these techniques, but the major part of them, both with the true and the false edge.

Therefore, let me suggest to you that, even though I have taught you these things personally, I have disposed things so that should you not practice this art for a while, you can go back to this book, and you will remember everything by reading it. But let me reassure you that even if you keep practicing this art of fencing, you may sometimes want to read this book for your edification while you exercise and become a good practitioner.

For I want you to know that at times, good practice is worth as much as good knowledge, so do not be surprised [by my advice]. In the name of God I will commence the first part of the true edge 2 with the true edge. You will regain the coda lunga e alta with the left foot forward. But I will put you in this guard for a little bit for it is not very appropriate for the brochiero stretto.

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Now watch well for being in this coda lunga e alta and your enemy comes to where you are, here you will push a thrust inside his sword and brochiero that will go to the face. He, in his parry, will uncover his right side. Then you will pass your left foot forward opposite his right side and will feint with a roverso but still being close to his sword.

And in this feint of a roverso you will lower the sword with the point towards the earth in the fashion of a molinello and you will lower yours and engage his in the manner that you raise his hand. That is you give a downwards twist. In this manner he will be without his sword If you are in a low guard with your right foot forward and your enemy wants to enter countering with the right edge, that is with half sword, then you will want to deceive him by raising while he is entering confidently, but guard against his sword hand for when he passes with the left foot with the feint you will not move.

But when he throws his sword towards the earth then you will lift your sword hand and go into the guardia alta followed by moving your right foot behind the left. You will then give a fendente to his head and in this manner your sword will go into the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta If you remain in the cinghiara porta di ferro to counter this first narrow right edge to right edge, I want you to be agent.

That is you will do the first entrance into the said right edge. You will pass your right foot forward finding him in the porta di ferro alta, or stretta, or larga and you will enter with said right edge in the style of a guardia di faccia Raise your right hand a little so that your sword point goes to the face and he for fear of the thrust will push your right arm to his weak side. You will in the same time pass your left foot opposite his right side and you will engage his sword arm with the hand of your buckler. You will then give a roverso to the head or a thrust to the neck.

If you do not want to do this presa, you will be able to give the rim of the brochiero to the outside of said arm right and in the time you will give a roverso to the head. Know that this is a great blow. For your defense you will remain with the sword and brochiero in the coda lunga e alta. When you do this said roverso you will counter pass the left foot following it with the right to the rear always. If you are in the porta di ferro alta, stretta or larga and your enemy wants to enter into true-edge to true-edge, I want you to know that you will want him not to come, keeping all in order that I have taught you.

But still, you will want to be patiente and allow said engagement in the true-edge. As soon as he enters, guard the hands for the occurrence of these prese. If he turns his false-edge to your true-edge with his hand high, you will not move. But as he passes his left foot forward to do a presa or give the brochiero to the sword arm, then you will hurl your right foot strongly behind the left and you will feign a roverso to his right arm or neck and slicing you will make said roverso more for defense to escape with the left foot behind the right.

You will then put your sword in the guardia di faccia accompanying your sword arm with that of the brochiero. If you are here in the coda lunga e alta or the porta di ferro stretta or alta, or you are in the coda lunga e stretta and your enemy is in the porta di ferro alta or stretta, here you will enter in quickly to the true-edge to true-edge, with the right foot forward and strong to the right. Doing this you will hurl your left foot opposite his right side: making it look like you will give a roverso to the head.

In this manner you will hurl him behind your shoulder or carry him away. And in this you will not fail. You being in the porta di ferro alta or stretta and your enemy engaging you true-edge to true-edge, have courage that you wanting to be patiente, you will need to guard the hands.

For this reason I want you to know that guarding the hands, he will not be able to do this thing to you without seeing. W hen he passes his left foot to your right side do not move until he hurls his sword away. And this he will not be able to fail. Still, I want you to know that you can hit him in the head with the rim of your brochierro. Now watch well for being in the porta di ferro alta or in the coda lunga e alta or coda lunga e stretta, and in consideration that you want to be agente. That is you will be the first to enter the half sword and in the utmost true-edge to true-edge. You will need to go safely that you find the guardia alta or porta di ferro alta.

Then finding him in said two guards you will enter in quickly to true-edge to true-edge. This with your sword hand above your brochiero and this I would do that if he is in the guardia alta he will not be able to strike your right hand. Immediately on coming to the true-edge you will turn the false edge of the sword to his true edge in the manner that you will slice his face with a roverso. Then in his fear of the roverso he will raise his right arm and you will in the same moment do a dritto redoppio inside his right arm with a traversato of the leading leg to the outside of his right arm.

For your defense you will embellish your play in a useful manner and you will return to the porta di ferro alta with your brochiero well formed. If you return to the guardia alta or porta di ferro alta, know that here is the consideration that you will be able to be agente or patiente. But still, you seeing your enemy in one of these aforementioned guards, thinking he has a large imagination of coming to you true-edge to true-edge, watch well, for when he comes turning his false edge to your true-edge to slice your face you will throw your right foot behind the left and then throw a large tramazzon to his sword arm or hand.

In this manner your sword will return to the porta di ferro cinghiara and in this manner you will have broken his intention. He will also not be able to do a roverso to your leg or a mandritto redoppio. Still, he will not have a roverso to the leading leg. In this manner I will be able in the same turn, being patiente, to prove the man as you will be forward and behind.

Watch well, for being led to true-edge to true-edge with your enemy, here you will strike his sword with your hilt to the inside in the manner that you will give a roverso to the right temple. During this you will pass your left foot opposite his right side and placing your brochiero against his sword arm. For your defense you will throw your right foot behind the left and you will put your sword and brochiero into the guardia di faccia. Watch well for when you lead to said true-edge and your enemy waits to strike your sword with his hilt so as to give you a roverso to the temple, I want you to know there is a need in this strike for you to throw your right foot behind your enemy and to make a half turn of the hand to your right side and engage your sword with the brochiero in the style of an arming sword.

At the same time you will throw the right foot behind the left and make a fendente to the head. In this way your sword will be in the porta di ferro stretta.

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That is against his left side. In this strike you will throw your left leg overlapping the outside of his right and your hand of your brochiero feeling his arm and you will put a traverso to his throat to the inside side. In this way you will in said arm in the outside strongly. And your left leg inside in the style of a gambarola, still you will drop him backwards to the ground and feeling in this passing of the leg and arms put you in the aforementioned place that you do not abandon your sword from his. Know that when you lead to said true-edge you will push strongly with the hilt against your enemy's sword to the inside.

Transcribed by Michael Chidester. Being led to said true-edge and your enemy striking his hilt against your sword, when he passes his left foot to do the gambarola with his right arm to your throat, and to throw you back, then on seeing the pass of his left leg to your right side, quickly throw your right leg behind the left and in this manner you will give a roverso to the leg. In this manner you will dupe him. Do not pass into the guardia di coda lunga e alta but stay narrow with the sword and brochiero.

But guard for when you are leading true-edge to true-edge, here it is considered if you are quick of hand or not. If you are quick, that is, your hand strikes rising with the hilt to his sword and you will give him a roverso to the thigh while not moving. Neither foot or leg. Quickly for your defense you will return above as in the arming sword and know that this is a clean attack that is pleasing to one who has quickness of hand and for one who is lazy is good for nothing.

Then knowing that when you will be in said true-edge with your enemy, you will need to remain wary. If he has quickness of hand you must attack without him perceiving you. But remaining attentive of him, that when he strikes to your sword to go to the roverso, then do a roverso to the rising leg, to the neck or to the sword arm. In this I would not fail. That is to say you know that this is a roverso to the leg; I will specify to you here. I want you to throw a roverso traversato, following your right leg back and not putting to earth until the said roverso is thrown.

Please know that being in said true-edge or wanting to be in false-edge, you will be able to do more prese of the sword and many feigns, and turns of the wrist, and feigns of roverso, and striking of the true edge, and feigns of the true edge and striking of roverso: and also feigns of roversi and strikes of the falsi. Therefore do not be amazed when one resorts to the two modes of the half sword, if I will be able to do many things. But I will tell you well that he that has come to knowledge when is it this half sword. I intend and I will know enter and strike all said two modes of the half sword.

I want you to know how excellent that is and perfect play. I know the time and those that do not do such art and who are not able to understand time, more half time and who are not able to be true players; Being God, that when I play with other players that I still turn to touch, but not touching upon what he knows, but touching on strength. This is because he is not founded in the art of half sword. Because I say to you, that when you teach your students for your honor, and for usefulness of the principles when you have given the forward eighth or ninth play.

You will divide some of these half sword between half and other botte. And in this manner you will make good practices and strong players and remain in strong botte, doing but for that learning of skirmishing. Because gioco largo wide play teaches skirmishing and narrow teaches to remain strong in all botte and make good courage to said students. Because first you must have habits and in this manner he will do well and be a firm player. I comfort you that keep these orders. But not to watch, that these narrow or botte are in the small brochiero that still is very much able to do with the single sword as I have said.

And in the two handed sword, the sword and targa and large brochiero. And also in the sword and rotella as well as hafted weapons as I have do ne, as you will do, if you do not forget. This is a perfect combat for wounding. That is, the sword and Bolognese dagger. Note when teaching someone this art of wounding that it is more natural. That is mandritti, roversi or stoccate. But I will say more of other attacks. Now note that I have a good imagination and I have harvested the parries more brief and more useful for one who must combat.

First you will be settled with the left foot forward and your dagger in your left hand in the porta di ferro stretta. In your right hand hold your sword in the coda lunga e alta. Keep your arms extended and tight. Note that whenever possible, I want you to be the first to attack. But do not let him be the first to attack you. I want you to take this order: that is throw a rising falso at his sword hand or to the dagger, yet remain with your left foot forward.

One foot following the other. In this manner you will be strong against an attack to the head or leg. If he attacks to the leg you will put the right edge of your dagger to the attack. That is turn the point of the dagger towards the ground and parry the mandritto of the enemy. In a single time pass with the right leg into a gran passo opposite his left side and give a mandritto to his leg going into a porta di ferro larga with your dagger in the guardia di testa. Then if your enemy throws a mandritto or a roverso at the head, or even a stoccata, I want you to make a rising strike with the false edge of your sword against his sword and follow it with a mandritto to the leg.

With this cut you will move the right foot a little forward and immediately throw a roverso. Follow this with moving the right foot in a gran passo to the rear of the left. The roverso should go to the sword arm of your enemy. Then the dagger will return to the porta di ferro and your sword will be in the coda lunga e alta.

In this manner you have returned to the same guard as used at first and await another turn to attack. Being in the coda lunga e alta with your sword and dagger as aforementioned, if your enemy throws a mandritto at your head, you will move your right foot strongly forward parrying with the sword and you will attack his side with your dagger. When you make this parry the sword hand should be extended and the point guarding towards the earth and for your defense throw a mandritto fendente with your right foot flying back and in this manner your sword will be in the cinghiara porta di ferro and your dagger in the guardia di testa.

When you are like this if your enemy another attack, high or low, move your right foot opposite the left side of your enemy and strike a falso at the attack and give a roverso to the leg. Then throw a rising falso followed by right for back for the hand you will make a half turn o f the fist on both hands and you will be in the coda lunga e alta with the sword and porta di ferro alta with the dagger.

This with both arms extended. Having your sword in the coda lunga e alta and your dagger in the porta di ferro , I want you to feel out your enemy with a stoccadella that makes a draw. But prepare if he does not make an attack. Then throw the right foot opposite his left side and throw a rising falso dritto to the dagger hand and in this manner you be in the coda lunga a stretta again with your dagger in the guardia di testa.

Then if your enemy throws a mandritto or a roverso at the head or leg or a thrust to the face, at all of these attacks you will throw a mandritto traversato with the right leg going to the rear with a traverse. In this manner the sword will go into the cinghiara porta di ferro stretta with your dagger in the guardia di testa. Then if your enemy responds to this attacks pass your right foot forward and strike with a rising falso at the attack.

You will be in the porta di ferro stretta with your dagger in the guardia di testa. Your arms will be extended to the right side of your enemy and you will stop in this guard. As you go into this third part you will have your sword in the porta di ferro stretta and your dagger in the guardia di testa. But I want you to employ in this term, that is you will go to one foot hunting the other. Maximally the left will shove the right forward, nevertheless knocking the falso and slicing the right of the arm or the leg or the face, demands an elza e tira. Going in this manner, he will gather strength to take any attack.

Low or high, but supposing he attacks with a fendente or a mandritto tondo to the head, or a mandritto sgualembrato, against these mandritti you will hurl the right foot a little opposite his right side and parry the attack in the guardia di faccia with the point of your sword to the right of the face of your enemy, in the same time, passing left and give a mandritto with the dagger and a roverso with the sword. In this manner your sword will end in the coda lunga e distesa with your left leg forward and your dagger in the porta di ferro alta and formed well. Here you will stop with the eye fixed on the two hands of your enemy.

For he is in need of the other part where you make it strong. That is to say he strongly strikes with a ponta, or a mandritto imbroccata that one waits for well. Being in the coda lunga e distesa as in part four and your dagger in the porta di ferro stretta, there is a need to keep this order, that is to feel out with a falso to the hand of the dagger or the sword and to overcome him you will give him a strong attack.

Know that when you attack with a falso the right foot hunts out the left and having such order goes strongly attached to this thing. Thomas Jefferson former president of the United States of America, in order that, in the name and interest of the same signatory, he may proceed and accept the inheritance left by Mr. Luisa Bellini, formerly a native of Italy, and a professor at the College of William and Mary in Virginia, who, as far as the signatory knows, died at the end of the month of September , in the United States of America, and in the northern part of the same, without having changed his will, under which will the same priest was appointed by the aforesaid Mrs.

Luisa and Aurora Bellini his full sisters, and in view of the death in Florence, while in the care of Santa Felicita, on 7 March , of Mrs. Aurora, one of the aforesaid Bellini sisters, as is recorded in the certificate of 23 August of this year issued by Mr. Giulio Ferdinando Pucci, archivist of the curia of the archdiocese of Florence, duly recorded, without having provided in any way for her things, the said sister of hers, Mrs.

Luisa Bellini, thus entering into her inheritance pursuant to the will above, made on 6 January through the offices of myself, the aforesaid and undersigned notary, the entire inheritance of the late Mr. Charles Bellini has come to be vested in the aforementioned Mr. Canon Fancelli the signatory, and as a consequence the aforesaid Mr.

Thomas Jefferson, his power of attorney, as above appointed may do all such acts, judicial and extrajudicial as may be necessary for said portion of the inheritance as long as these have not already been done pursuant to other mandates issued while still living by the aforesaid Mrs. Luisa Bellini the principal of the said signatory.

With the objective of being able to proceed with the sale, either private or public, and for the highest price possible, of the two slaves supposed to exist under the inheritance of the aforesaid Mr.

Bestselling Series

Charles Bellini, as well as all the other goods, whether immovable or movable, that comprise the inheritance itself, and thus demand, withdraw, and collect from the buyer or buyers of said goods the price of the same, as well as to exact any credit and assignment owing to the aforesaid inheritance, making in the name and interest of the signatory, in the aforesaid capacity, any appropriate receipt whether on account or in settlement of the sums the aforementioned Mr.

Thomas Jefferson may collect in the correct ways and forms, according to the custom of the country—. With the objective of being able to transact and to liquidate any rightful credit and shares owed to the signatory, as aforesaid heir, in whatever mode and form shall seem to him more useful and profitable to the interests of the same signatory. With the objective of being able to petition any court, whether at law or in equity, as may be necessary to obtain the entire satisfaction of any credit or right owed to the signatory, as well as to respond to interrogatories, to testify under oath, representing the aforesaid signatory every time, and as many times as may be necessary according to the suitable and respective cases.

With the objective of being able to report the sales, records, and resolutions to be done as above of assignments, goods, and capital of the aforesaid inheritance, to make, and to be able to make, any and all declarations, releases, and obligations that may be necessary according to the usage of the country, obligating the assignments and goods of the inheritance itself as well as the very assignments and goods of the signatory.

With the objective of being able to remit all of the sums recorded, which will be done by the mandatory, of the aforesaid Bellini inheritance, or piecemeal of those sums which he will have exacted, to the city of Florence on behalf of the same Mr. Canon Fancelli, the grantor, or in the city and port of Leghorn to the address of Mr. Therefore he [Momus] then devised a plan worthy of him. For he made the entire world to abound in bed-bugs, maggots, bees, wasps, cock- roaches and foul insects of this sort, which shared his likeness. Cf Ariosto, "Satire, "6.

But you, whose study is entirely human. The Satires of Ludovico Ariosto, Nella novella di Ser Chiappelletto a che altro attese che a levarci dal cuore la riverentia et divotione de santi? Teli me, please, you followers of Boccaccio, did he ever attempt, in the novella of Gianotto Giudeo, to do anything other than to make us hate the most holy Roman court, always calling the lives of priests now wicked, now filthy, never real- izing that his own life was far worse than all others?

What was he thinking about when he wrote about Frate Rinaldo, the Angel Gabriel and Don Felice, if not to disgrace holy friars, who are the barrier and the bastion against heretics, and to make us unhappy, as would happen if the holy friars with their good teachings and many good examples did not defend us from the pestilence of heresy? And what else did he set about to do in the novella of Ser Ciappelletto if not to remove from our hearts the reverence and devotion of saints? P[asquillus]: lUum non vidi: sed iussus exire concilium, ante palatium vidi ludentem cum quibusdam Geniis puerulum, de quo cum meum ducem interrogarem, dixit Christum esse, qui ibi luderet, et omnia commisisset matti" M[arphorius]: But where was Christ?

P[asquillus]: I didn't see him, but having been ordered to leave the coun- cil, I saw a little boy playing with some genii in front of the palace. When I asked my guide about him, he said it was Christ who was playing there and who had entrusted all things to his mother. Cf also Erasmus's Religious Pilgrimage. But it was fitting for the Gospel of St. John, "In the beginning was the word," to be hung from the neck; Cf Erasmus, The Exorcism and the Ghost: "On the neck [of the vase] was placed the so-called sacred robe from which the beginning of the Gospel according to St.

John was hanging. In addition, a sacred stole as it is called , with the opening verses of St. The paternity oi]ulius Excludedis a much debated question. I feel that the undoubtedly Erasmian core of the dialogue was reelaborated in a philo-French and openly conciliar direction before the edition of , probably by a humanist from Basel belonging to the circle of Boniface Amerbach. Nevertheless, the attri- butions to Hutten and to Fausto Andrelini are certainly unfounded. Cf Ijsewijn. This — 33 — Luca D'Ascia heaven is not open to a Momus or a mocker.

Pasquino, however, is not impressed: "Risi subito, intra me dicens, Oportet hie muka ridicula esse, quod momos vitant et mimes. M [arphorius] : You argue too socratically with me: I don't understand this well enough, these tricks of logic. We speak of the gods of the Christians, Pasquillus; let's leave Lucianic pleasantries to their author. Si isti tot visionibus scatent, cur tantis superstitionibus, tantisque mandacijs ut soles dicere adhuc involvuntur?

M [arphorius]: But I will ask you one thing, which I had nearly forgotten. If those people abound in so many visions, why are they as you often say wrapped up in so many superstitions and deceits? P[asquinus]: Because they don't ask that the truth of sacred matters be revealed to them, but rather they ask for other pleasantries, which are sometimes impious. The description of sorcery in Curione is very close to a famous episode in Cellini's Vita in which Cellini describes a necromantic experiment that ends mis- erably and is quickly forgotten by the adventurous protagonist himself Cellini's sarcastic conclusion is highly emblematic: "Con questi ragionamenti noi arrivam- mo alle case nostre, e ciascun di noi tutta quella notte sognammo diavoli" Cellini, La vita, Thus we find the sphere of fire, the appearance of the Angel, the biblical model of the chariot of Elijah.

Pasquillus, P[asquillus]: In the meantime, while I saw that all my learning would be poorly arranged, I began to doubt some things concerning human affairs and by what chance they're governed; to myself I was unsure of God's providence, of God's justice, seeing here and there the affliction of the just and the fortunate lot of the impious. I would often think to myself, what is it I ask that governs things now among men, convinced almost that it was something other than that which governs the other affairs of nature.

M [arphorius]: That was the true way towards Epicureanism. As in Erasmus, provocation is linked to the traditional fight against 'paganism. P asquillus : Erant cuculia, rosaria, vestes sordidae, detonsi crines, vela vestalium, mille vestium, mille calceorum, mille rituum formae. M[arphorius]: Have you seen no foundational material?

P asquillus : There were cowls, rosaries, coarse clothes, tonsured hair, the veils of virgins, the forms of a thousand clothes, shoes and rites; along with these, add rotten fish, the threefold crowns of the mitre and various lit- de books, all of which had been mixed together with tufa stone and lime, and this was the base of the foundation.

These are followed by the tribunal and finally by the palace of the Lady of the Apocalypse where the secret consistory is held; and the churchmen deliberate on how best to keep the princes and peoples of Europe in ignorance. The first levels are a parodie echo of the Dionysian tradition. In his description of the 'Christian' heaven, on the other hand, Curione eliminates all hierarchical elements there are no distinctions between angelic orders, no grada- tions of beatitude among the elect , insisting instead on absolute equality.

Although for a long time I had sought out some path to heaven, I was never able to find this path; although I read much concerning Protheus and Icaromenippus, who were said to lead there, there was but silence as to which path to take. Mirra narras. Ergo ista administratio rerum ad veris Sanctis non egreditur [sic]. P[asquillus]: Non, Marphori. M[arphorius]: Scisne a quibus? P[asquillus]: Scio, ab immundis spiritibus, qui hominibus pulchris titulis illudunt. Nescis Dominum in Evangelio dixisse, Antichristum miraculis fidem eversurum? You tell of wonderful things.

Therefore such administration of matters doesn't proceed to the true saints. P[asquillus]: No, Marphorius. M[arphorius]: Do you know by whom? P[asquillus]: I know: by impure spirits, who deceive men with beautifiil titles. Don't you know what the Lord said in the Gospel, that the Antichrist would overturn faith through miracles? Quoties in conviviis imperium transtulimus in lulium pontificem et summum pontificium in Maximilianum Caesarem!

Deinde collegia monacharum — 35 — Luca D'Ascia matrimonio copulavimus coUegiis monachorum. Mox descripsimus ex illis exerci- tum adversus Turcas, deinde colonias ex iisdem in novas insulas. Breviter univer- sum orbis statum vertebamus. Sed haec senatusconsulta non inscribebantur aureis tabulis, sed vino, sic ut sublatis poculis nemo meminisset quid a quo dictus esser" This freedom in banquets and friendly conversations pleases me, and I often over-indulge in it, assessing the minds of others from the standpoint of my own.

How often in conversation did we transfer the empire to Pope Julius and supreme power to Emperor Maximilian! Next we joined in marriage the commu- nities of nuns to the communities of monks. Soon from them we formed an army against the Turks, then from the same we established colonies on new islands. In short time we overturned the entire state of the world. But such "Senate decrees" were not inscribed in gold tablets, but in wine, so that once the glasses were born away, nobody remembered what was said by whom.

Sane debebas ista in triviis declamitare. P[asquinus]: Auditoribus fakinis scilicet.

Non tamen id me puderet, nisi timerem decretum Pontificis illius Germani revocatum iri M[arphonus]: I acknowledge the error; you will stand then for me in place of Gratianus, Pasquillus. Clearly you were obliged to declaim those things in the streets. P asquillus : Namely, to those listening porters. However it wouldn't shame me, unless I feared that the decree of that German pope would be revoked I would not like this meeting of ours to be known to everyone, when already the truth, which is diligently sought in your presence here, is despised by all.

Typical of this way of proceeding is the reference to Saint Michael. Curione argues against the legend which claimed that the Archangel had installed himself on Mount Gargano. The cowherd, from whom the mountain had supposedly got- ten its name, had gone in search of a lost bull. Upon finding him, he fired a poi- sonous arrow at him in a fit of anger, an arrow that instead turned around and struck the person who had fired it.

With this miracle. Saint Michael announced to the citizens of the area that he would from then on establish himself on the mountain as guardian cf Jacobus de Voragine [sic]. The Golden Legend: 2. M[arphorius] Ilium qui in monte Gargano dicitur amasse taurum? P[asquil- lus]: They used to say he was Saint Michael. M[arphorius]: You mean he who is said to have loved a bull on Mount Gargano? P[asquillus]: The very same. But above all he invents in pure legendary style the struggle between the Archangel and the devil not found in Jacopo da Varagine for the possession of a soul: "Iratus [Michael] gladio caedit daemonem, — 36 — The Grotesque 'World Beyond' from Boccaccio to Curione et cruce rubra quam in pectore gerit minatur et quietum esse iubet.

Angered, [Michael] struck the demon with his sword, and he threatened him with the red cross which he bore on his chest and ordered him to be quiet. Indeed, the demon, reduced at last to obedience, stood with his head bowed, just as a fox will do who has stolen away a hen. If the peasant comes upon him and threatens him with a stick, he withdraws completely, nevertheless still holding the hen in his teeth.

This comparison has an exactness that recalls Dante, and is very far from Cinquecento canons of decorum, especially in connection with the Last Judgement; the humanistically educated reader cannot but exclaim with Marphorius: "Pulchra compararlo per lovem. Moreover, before I would accept these arguments, painters themselves often caused me to have doubts about this [purgatorial] fire. For when they depicted men with their feet and hands raised in the air, showing their bodies complete and their hair and beards unharmed, I thought that this fire was not greatly effective.

P[asquillus]: You should know that there's a great difference between the sun and the moon, which circle this world daily, and between those who dress this queen. M[arphorius]: If it is that difference which is found between fictional or depicted things and real things, certainly the difference will be great. Don't persuade yourself, Pasquillus, that this giant was ever so large, but rather it was an invention of the ancient and wisest Greeks during the time when the Christian republic was still growing.

Desiring to explain to everyone the com- plete Christian man and his life, they combined everything in a single image, which they called Christopher: this would relay to each and every Christian what he ought to be Cf Curionis, Araneus seu de Providentia Dei: "Haec cum paulo subtilius Pythagoras, ille reconditae philosophiae princeps, disputaret, ut tunc erant nova, — 37 — Luca D'Ascia secus ac debuerant accepta sunt, estque ipse ludibrio habitus quorundam prava aemulatione Adeo periculosum est, Paradoxa et remotiores paulo sententias efFerre: quod verum esse facile comperiet, qui quonam pacto Christi placita, cum primum vulgari coeperunt, accepta fuerint, animadverterit" Since Pythagoras, that founder of recondite philosophy, somewhat more subtly disput- ed these things, they were accepted, as they were then new, but had deserved oth- erwise to be accepted; and he himself was exposed to mockery through the base envy of certain people.

Therefore it is dangerous to express paradoxes and some- what more obscure opinions. He who considers in what way the pleas of Christ were accepted, when they were first spread among the people, will easily discover this to be true. Curione's positive assessment of Pythagoras derives naturally from the Florentine Platonic tradition: cf , for example, Marsilio Ficino's proem to Plato's Parmenides: "Pythagorae Socratisque et Platonis mos erat ubique divina mysteria figuris [sic] involucris obtegere, sapientiam suam contra Sophistarum iac- tantiam modeste dissimulare, iocari serio et studiosissime ludere" Ficino It was the custom of Pythagoras, Socrates and Plato everywhere to conceal divine mysteries in figurative guises, discreetly to distinguish their wisdom from the boasting of the Sophists, to joke with serious intent and to play most studiously.

Opera inedita et pauca separatim impressa. Florence: Sansoni, Fate and Fortune, in Dinner Pieces. David Marsh. Binghamton, N. Momo del principe. Rino Consolo. Ariosto, Ludovico. Cesare Segre. Milan-Naples: Ricciardi, Peter Desa Wiggins. Artemidorus The Interpretation of Dreams. Robert J. Biondi, A. Blanchard, W. Scholar's Bedlam. Menippean Satire in the Renaissance. Branca, Vittore. Giovanni Boccaccio. Profilo biografico. Cellini, Benvenuto. La vita. John Addington Symonds. Curionis, Coelius Secundus. Araneus seu de Providentia Dei.

Basel: Oporinus, Eleutheropopoli [Basileae]: Oporinus, D'Ascia, Luca. Achille Olivieri. Rovigo: Minelliana, Erasmus, Desiderius. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co. Angiolo Gambaro. Brescia: La Scuola, Jesse Kelley Sowards. Craig R. Collected Works of Erasmus Colloquies. Ficino, Marsilio. Opera omnia. Basel: Henricpetrina, Ijsewijn, Jozef. Venice, n. Marsh, David.

The Qiiattrocento Dialogue. Classical Tradition and Humanist Innovation. Menchi, Silvana Seidel. Erasmo in Italia Turin: Bollati-Boringhieri, Ossola, Carlo. Il medioevo latino. Cavallo, C. Leonardi, and E. Rome: Salerno, Diffusione e metamorfosi d'un libello antiromano del Cinquecento," in Forme e destinazione del messaggio reli- gioso. Aspetti della propaganda religiosa nel Cinquecento. Florence: Olschki, Simoncini, Stefano. Alberti," in Le due Rome del Quattrocento. Rossi and S. Rome: Lithos, Stella, Aldo. DalTanabattismo al socinianesimo nel Cinquecento veneto.

Ricerche storiche. Padua: Liviana, Valla, Lorenzo. Basel: Ex officina Henricpetrina, Oraciones y Prefacios. Santiago: University of Chile, Editorial Universitaria, De vero falsoque bono. De Panizza Lorch. Bari: Adriatica, Leonard A. The Hague: Mouton, Voragine [sic], Jacobus de. The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints. William Granger Ryan. While discussing some original traits of certain dialogical texts, ones involving the 'fantastic,' I had occasion to refer in passing to problems related to 'vision' and, to put it in more secular and mundane and, hence, modern terms, to the visual element in Anton Francesco Doni's concept of the theatre of the world.

I begin with the same basic concepts, but with the goal of carry- ing out a more careful analysis of the hidden meaning of the relationship between the theoretical-practical elaboration of dreams and the highly salvific function of fantastic writing, which Doni establishes with exem- plary clarity. His writing has two levels of meaning: it is designed to achieve both a diegesis of the vicissitudes of life, and a surreal mimesis which is essentially the allegorical dramatization of the entire tradition of oneiric imaginings.

His characters, members of what he calls the Academy of the Pellegrini or Pilgrims, display a highly articulated and ambiguous familiarity with the masters of great visionary literature. He does so for the sake of a thoroughly deliberate game that does not lack its own cynical ambi- tion. Through the sophisticated mechanism of burlesque discourse, this lusus attempts to cast doubt on both the absolute meaning and the moder- Quaderni d'italianistica. This process is conceived as an approach to the meaning of modernity, of that mannerist modernity of the sixteenth century which, even while following the script of a fiction enacted by a burlesque confraternity, involves a collective voyage by the members of the Academy of the Pellegrini.

Its ambition is to place the subject in a different perspective, in the unprecedented context of plurality and contiguousness. This fictional subject is destined to travel unharmed along the impractica- ble and ideologically risky itinerary of late-Renaissance mannerism, which saw the fading of the dreams of renewal that the severity of the Counter-Reformation attempted to render even darker and more prob- lematic.

First and foremost, it is noteworthy that the debate in Doni's Mondi on the nature of dreams with relevant confirmation in his work entitled Marmi [Marble Steps] and elsewhere is, in the end, nothing but a mime- sis of that problematic utopia of playful knowledge. First of all, plurality. Mondo risibile. It is a space presented to the readers who, in this situation, are themselves in need of a different imagi- native order.

Onde si ritroveranno, al par di voi, per aven- tura a godere il bene dell'intelligenza di quest'opera. Now we proceed to print not, as was planned, the Greatest Worldhxxt the Imagined World, We wish to relieve him somewhat with some curious inventions. If, spiritual readers, these pleasantries should bring you some annoyance, the very book which you have in your hands will be able to satisfy you as far as doctrine and the spirit are concerned, because, by finding the things written for your benefit, you may feed on them.

And the others, who are not yet so perfected in matters pertaining to God, will make themselves ready with these means, because they will find certain hidden stairways by which to climb higher. Like you, they will find themselves, by chance, enjoying the advantage of understand- ing this work. Here then begins the new World [i. This composite mode of writing also allows for a different way of read- ing. This is the logic of the hypertext; that is, of a work capable of ensuring, beside the 'spiritual' reader, the presence of a different reader, on another wavelength, one more attentive to its curious inventions.

Only in this way can the 'alchemy' of such an anomalous text be guaranteed or rather protected — 43 — Raffaele Girardi from censorship. It is presented, moreover, from the very beginning by Elevato himself as a great mass of writings, some true, some doubtful, and some resolved "scritti, parte veri, parte dubbiosi e parte risoluti" 6. The addition of meaning, ensured by the hypertext,5 is precisely the goal sought by the adventuresome Pellegrini through dream. By means of both practice and narration the playful rhetoric of the harangue, or solemn discourse, distorts the tradition of persuasive oration in a burlesque key.

It does so in order to narrate in a fuller imaginative space a topos much loved by Doni, i. It actually aims, in the very spirit of a singular hyper- textual voyage, to create a space for writing that is free and arbitrary. The organic unity of the world, regulated by the logos — the rational order of the universe — opens the way to a fantastic multiplicity, to an invisible cosmography. In this way, as Heraclitus had already seen in the relationship between wakefulness and sleep, the norm of daily order is replaced by what lies outside of it — a plurality that is wholly individual and the disorder of dream.

It involves a dia- tribe launched in collaboration with another Academy present on the stage, that of the Vignaiuoli or Vine Dressers of Rome. It ends in an incon- clusive manner, and not without a burlesque reminder of other, ancient forms of voyages to salvation for example, the naval voyage in Lucian's True History and the earthly voyage in Dante. Non voglio or dire che la fantasma [mi] abbia qualche volta stretto il cuore sul principio del dormire, innanzi che io abbi appiccato il sonno. We were on a pil- grimage of jests and wild fancies of gluttony, as was seen in Fichi [Figs], Nasi [Noses] and other very lively witticisms, and not a pilgrimage of devotion.

You, then, should pray, that you may have some vision, which will teach you how to get to heaven; or aJlegorically, through the medi- um of dream [sonno] , you could learn how easy or how difficult is the thing which you are seeking. In the insogno, which is the ordinary dream of humans, we have had many of these, which I believe are not true, because they have been caused by various accidents, mixed according to one's type of constitution: the sanguine man dreams happy things; the melancholic man frightening things; the choleric man fiery things; and the phlegmatic man watery things.

I do not wish to say now that fancy has on some occasion wrung my heart at the beginning of sleep, before I had begun to doze. But no more of this, because they are not suitable means for such a high ascent. They do not pertain to these pilgrims who are without a fixed sanctuary, as Artemidorus, an authority on the theory of dreams well known to the members of Doni's circle, would have it.

There remains only one form of oneiric creativity that is fully human insofar as it is tied to the various acci- — 45 — Raffalle Girardi dents of the human physical constitution, namely the insogno or enhyp- nion. VVnother and more complex dimension is the concrete- ness of Doni's writing, in which the expectation of knowledge and the prospect of artistic synthesis — that is, a ratio, even if fantastic in nature, to be put into practice through the representation of dreams — are not by any means discarded. They are still present.

Instead the idea of flight was more acceptable. It was more in keeping with the re-invention of scenery that was playfully mysti- cal and aerial, and designed to receive in the intermediate spaces between the Mondi the Mondo immaginato, misto, risibile and savio Imagined, mixed, laughable and wise Worlds the old archetypes of the divine lusus, namely Jove and Momus.

The mediator-shaman himself is authorized to solve on a playful level in reality with desperate irony and disenchantment the enigma of visions, of the world seen from outside. This is because in lusus there is hidden an evidently inescapable truth content, even if at times it is inexpressible inso- far as it is outside reason and, so to speak, officially extraneous to the logos. In the imagination of the Pellegrini dream hardly ever evokes the idea of solitude. It always takes the form of a socializing story that turns quick- ly into an emblem, and becomes the subject matter of collective narration.

At times, in fact, its oneiric derivation is recognized and certified a posteri- ori, after having been already received as a story. Leggiadro utters the following: "il Sonnacchioso e lo Smarrito Sleepy and Bewildered But the most active and significant concentration of Doni's antinomies occurs in Mondo savio, which not by accident has the task of completing, in the form of a climax, the itinerary of the intermediate worlds; it is the epilogue of a discourse which, with the dialogue between Pazzo Madman and Savio Wise man , has reached the highest level of concentration and, so to speak, of symbolic inflation.

When it comes time to reach some pro- visional conclusion about this rapid excursus, then the truly fundamental significance which this inflationary result assumes for the entire develop- ment of the discussion on meaning and currency should become clear. In the universe of dream, there is no logos that provides reassurance about the unity of the world, and the word can do nothing more than predicate an eternal plurality and disorder of meaning.

It is not surprising, then, that the mediator-shaman Savio himself remains trapped in the insurmountable dilemma of the antinomic rapport between Wisdom and Folly. He is uncertain as to how to name the reality of utopia, that is the new world. On the threshold of recounting a new vision, he demonstrates his vexation to the readers through another of the numerous harangues: Voi avreste forse piacere di sapere quello ch'io aveva pensato in tanti ri- voltamenti Prima inalberai con il nome, se io doveva chiamarmi il Savio o il Pazzo: s'io mi battezzava per matto, tutto quello che io avessi scritto le Signorie Vostre l'avrebbono avuto per materia.

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O il dirti savio non monda nespole: a questo si risponde che ancora i matti spacciati non si tengano pazzi, ma savi. Se ben voi lo chiamaste ermafrodito, non ve ne darei una castagna. You would perhaps like to know what I had thought during many rumi- nations First I took issue with my name, whether I should call myself Savio [Wise] or Pazzo [Mad] : if I were to christen myself as mad, every- thing that I had written Your Highnesses would have served as proof.

Or to tell you 1 am wise won't make any difference; the response to this is that the insane do not consider themselves mad, but wise. If, then, you were to call me by my own name, it would not be of any significance, because "wise" in Italian literally means a "public madman. If you were to put a bridle around the neck of this name, it could run recklessly among the wise and the mad, so that you may call it and me mad and wise, wise and mad, as you wish. If you were indeed to call it hermaphrodite, I wouldn't care. It is, nonetheless, a fixed time, an ironic fiction, one that jokingly suggests the futility of the dilemma.

Comincia adunque insino dal principio del sogno. Pazzo: Sometimes dreams come true, but, from what you had said before — that is, that you had never seen such a beautiful thing — , you can, if you wish, do me a great favour: begin from the top, describe the place and tell me everything in detail. It truly seems to me a great novelty that there exists a world in which everyone enjoys all that we enjoy here in our own world, and that men have a single thought, and all human passions are taken away. Start, then, right from the beginning of the dream. A single stage direction was enough for Doni, at the opening of the dialogue between Savio and Pazzo, to inform the reader that the object of this umpteenth reverie — demonstrated by Jove, its inventor, dressed as a Pilgrim along with Momus — was in this instance undoubtedly a vision, despite all doctrinal distinctions, h is above all a vision that produces delight; it is unpredictably capable again of evoking a possibility "Tal volta vengano veri i sogni," sometimes dreams come true , a logic of a sense of perspective, a prophetic force, which here renounces any diminution of the ordinary, common, and bestial insogno.

You were speaking of dreams in the sense of dreams that have come true, but who doubts — confirms Jove, who had in the meantime revealed himself to Savio and Pazzo — that, when we gods intervene in your affairs, everything does indeed happen? As confirmation of your dream and the city that we have shown you, I'll tell you about some.

This is the introduction to a review of 'historic' visions, one of many in Mondi, which tends to represent a kind of series of imagi- native events that are linked together: the anthropological universe of dream as routine and as the inflation of meaning. After the detailed digression on the marvelous architecture of the great city built in the shape of a perfect circle, and on its natural and commu- nistic customs, one can understand why Savio counters Pazzo's desire for philological precision with subtle perplexity.

Pazzo would love to see books and sources quoted for that Utopian depiction. He who is learned, and has read Plato's Republic, the laws of the Lacedemonians, of the followers of Lycurgus, of the Romans, and even of the Christians, knows where the devil keeps his tail; but he who is not an expert of books, has no need of official intro- ductions. It suffices for him to know that this is a dream, this is wisdom, this is the opinion of men, this is folly. The very logic of dreams — this time of dreams in general — belongs to a dimension that is wholly human, even when, in the light of the same phenomenon in ancient civilizations, it is revealed to be a pure anthropo- logical fact, in its fundamentally demoniac quality.

In that crowded region of the memory, which is the memory of civilization, of the construction or machine of the world, the word, following in the footsteps of Giulio Camillo, retains both the free flux of narration as well as oneiric conden- sation, and it frees itself from the risks of becoming a mere catalogue of solemn tales.

To dream in Inferni, instead, is to experience the labyrinth, but with- out a guide. This is what Disperato the Desperate One complains about to Pluto from the very beginning. It is a journey without structure, one that instead grows and expands upon itself through a chaotic accretion of materials that flow according to a new kind of allegory into the general aggregate of the book. But in the foreground there is constantly present the problem of rele- vance, of the very qualifications of the guides.

It is a dilemma that concerns the validity of the authorities: Leggendo adunque lo stupendo poeta, il nostro Dante, mi son cre- duto un tempo di trovar quella selva e caminar dietro alle sue pedate Menippo ebbe al suo tempo quella ventura d'uno incantatore, d'un negromante che lo volle servire; adesso va', trovagli tu, chi sa far fare i diavoli a suo modo non si cura che gli altri abbino questo contento.

Egli poi sapeva la via. But in vain I walked and in vain I made my voyages through these forests of life, and I am now convinced that the forest that he found has been cut and cleared, and that no one will ever be able to find it again. I have found no one, either on the high seas, in caves, in caverns or lakes, or in the terrifying mountains, who can give me news of Virgil's Sibyl. In his day Menippus had that adventure with a magician, a necro- mancer who wanted to serve him.

Now you go find him; he who knows how to make devils do what he wants does not care that others have this satisfaction. Orpheus had the virtue of knowing how to play the rebec, and he made marvellous compositions. There is no need for me to get involved in this undertaking, because I would not get any honour from it. In the opening pages of Mondo grande.

No one can know this yet except God most high; but, as far as one can comprehend through conjecture, we are close to the end, for every virtue has reached its height and every vice its extreme. It is not fortuitous that Doni, at the very beginning of Inferni, should take up once again the discussion of the nature of dreams and their change- able truth content which again raises the problem of "knowing the way" , a subject which he approaches on the basis of Saint Augustine's distinction between sensorial vision, spiritual vision, and intellectual vision.

Yet, how- ever much these infernal dreams may be very lowly things "bassissime cose" , and considering that, as Doni claims, some dreams, in his opinion, seem to him to have a divine origin, but, like the good seed that is over- shadowed by thorns, they are not seen clearly "Alcuni altri sogni, al mio giudicio, mi par ch'abbino principio dal divino, ma, offiiscati come il buon seme dalle spine, non vengano a luce chiara" , the perspective offered by demoniac visions appears to be much more open than the Augustinian premise would authorize us to believe.

Utili credo ben io che le saran- no The visions that I have seen while dreaming I shall narrate them all to you, writing them down one by one, and I shall leave it up to your judgment to decide to which categories they belong.