Robespierre and Hegel take recourse to the model of "drama"; St. Just's speech suggests that the lethality of organized discourse begins much earlier. Buchner places considerable weight on this meta- phor when he lets Barrere reiterate and fortify it later in the play: "a, geh St. Just's like Hegel's logic is syntactic, based on hypotactical organization "Interpunctionszeichen" , on narrative structure hinging on the event "ein EreigniS" , on the possibility of closure "wir schlieaen schnellund einfach".
Accordingly St. Just takes recourse to some of the grand old narrative topoi-earthquake, pestilence, volcanic eruption, flood-to illustrate der Gang der Geschichte by telling Geschich- ten.
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Analagously at the end of his Vorlesun- gen zur Philosophie der Geschichte, Hegel speaks of the "wechselndes Schauspiel der Geschichten" that constitute Geschichte. Hegel's phrasing once again and at a highly prominent place points to the connection of drama [Schauspiel], narrativity [Ge- schichten], and the philosophy of history, [Geschichte]. To write history, of course, is to tell a story, or many stories; all teleologi- cal and most non-teleological models of World History rely on the basic patterns of narrativity.
Hegel's scheme of destruction, preservation, and re-formation finds a dis- torted echo in St. Just's exam- ple, of course, is ironic-after all, Pelias did not rejuvenate, he perished in the pot. Again and again the spokesmen of the revo- lution take recourse to ancient mythos, plot, transforming Aristotelian story into Hegelian story where beginning, middle, and end always read destruction, transfor- mation, re-formation. Just evokes turn against him. The ideology he advances will necessarily do away with him and Robes- pierre, as well; the process he outlines can- not be controlled: "Moses fuhrte sein Volk durch das rothe Meer und in die Wiiste bis die alte verdorbne Generation sich auf- gerieben hatte, eh' er den neuen Staat griindete" DT Moses, as St.
Just fails to note, was, of course, himself of the "alte Generation" and, like them, never got to see the promised land. Terror, then, is complicitous with the grammar of dramatic narrative, and the well-turned sentence is an agent of fatal force. It is in its sharp contrast to the struc- ture of St. Her professed ignorance of or- ganized discourse, of progress, and of dis- tinctions makes her the true antagonist of Robespierre's and St.
Just's deadly sen- tences and laws and lets eroticism emerge as the genuine antithesis to grand histori- cal discourse. Marion starts her monologue with some fragmentary phrases. So zu deinen Faen.
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Ich will dir erziihlen" DT Ich will dir erzahlen, literally: "I want to narrate to you," is an elliptic sen- tence. The common German usage would be, "Ich will dir etwasleine Geschichte erziihlen," "I want to tell you a story. In fact, Marion's speech will develop into something of an anti- story; her monologue is counter-narrative in a profound sens-ven though she her- self at first insists on the act of narration, defying Danton's desire:. Her monologue, an autobiography in nuce, is thus from the beginning embedded in an alternative, sex or narration, mutu- ally replaceable, mutually exclusive.
Sex and History, or Is There an Erotic Utopia in Dantons Tod?
The fact that Marion insists on narration and denies "the better use of her lips" to Dan- ton is all the more significant since her nar- ration culminates in a representation of desire that implies the end of all story-tell- ing:. Die andern Leute haben Sonn- und Werk- tage, sie arbeiten 6 Tage und beten am 7. Ich be- greife nichts davon. Ich kenne keinen Ab- satz, keine Veranderung. Ich bin immer nur Eins.
With this passage, Marion's speech switches from the narrative past tense she had employed before to the present tense, abandons hypotactical syntax and assumes the staccato rhythm of the sexual act. Marion's narration is not, as most readings imply, homogenous in style. The dissolution she talks about is enacted within her speech, and it dissolves the very narrative gestus that opens her monologue. For narration of the past demands that time be marked and ordered, and dramatic dia- logism demands that the characters of the plot be distinguishable.
At this point in her monologue, "narration of the past" must come, and does come, to an end, since nei- ther the time nor the actors of the past can be marked anymore. In other words, the pastlpresent distinction becomes mean- ingless, and with it all historical teleology. Accordingly, Marion's tale switches to present tense. The story Marion tells is very different from the story St. Just tells; but histori- cism and eroticism merge on many counts. Perhaps the most striking parallel between both speeches is the harsh anti-individual- ism they propose.
Either one takes the modern political axiom of equality to a rad- ical extreme. All are equal--equally desir- able, equally disposable. While historicism can still preserve the individual, if only through its petrification as statue, Mari- on's amoralism, no less lethal, goes a step further, undoing all distinctions, political,. Marion provides nobody's re- demption, grants no utopian haven to his- tory-weary lovers. Lehmann has pointed out that "Danton hat dem Rousseauisten Robespierre ent- gegen, wieviel er dem 'Kontrast' von Tu- gend und Laster schuldet," and further, that this opposition "deswegen zentral ist, weil die Bereiche Politik und Erotik in ihm zusammentreffen.
In her list of pleasures-Leiber, Christusbilder, Blumen oder Kinderspielsachen- there is room for sex, religion, beauty, and play, but not for politics, and not for history. Marion, however, is as re- mote from politics as she is from normative psychology; she cannot be "grasped" and "enclosed" from any prestabilized view- point. Peter von Becker is mistaken if he levels her with Lucile and Julie in the group of "more human humans. It is pre- cisely this distinction, however, that Mari- on disclaims. She does not only not distin- guish between others, she ceases to distin- guish between herself and others as well when she fluctuates between the sea and that which sinks within it: "Aber ich wurde wie ein Meer, was Alles verschlang und sich tiefer und tiefer wiihlte.
Danton echoes this coalescence of subject and object: "Ich mochte ein Theil des Aethers seyn, um dich in meiner Fluth zu baden, um mich auf jeder Welle deines schonen Leibes zu brechen" DT Who is body, who water? Danton's yearning phrase inverts the metaphors of shape and fluidity; desire liquidates the distinction between the formed and the amorphous, between shape and transition-a dream for Danton, but, it seems, Marion's mode of existence.
Danton is caught between history and eros, longing for both realms but unable to enter both or either one. His dream is a vi- sion of both supreme historical agency and utter erotic submission:. Activity and passivity merge in an apoca- lyptic vision of history both erotic and ter- rible. Danton subsequently rationalizes the September killings, and the scene ends in the the chaste-domestic 'gulie, komm, zu Bette!
Danton, it seems, is not up to his dreams; unable to sustain his credo, his eroticism remains wish and vi- sion. This is the ultimate difference be- tween Danton and Marion who has erased personal and universal history, who denies the Absatz between work and play, dream and life. So, is there an erotic utopia in Dantons Tod? The answer, I suspect, emerges in the very first scene. Danton has been called the prototypical anti-hero; Marion, to be sure, is no heroine, either.
After all, "character" is hardly at issue in the Marion-scene. Her monologue embodies a principle rather than a person, the principle of pure eroticism as it emer- ges on the backdrop of historicism her very name can be read as a play on Mari- anne, the national symbol. Marionesque eroticism challenges the fundamental con- stituents of History. In its denial of tempo- ral and personal differentiation Marion's life escapes documentability.
It cannot be narrativized. It refuses to produce-Mari- on's sexuality is not of the teleological, reproductive kind. Eroticism, the sea to which all statues will be returned, emerges as the antithesis of production and forma- tion, the absence of work, but also-and here the utopia ends abruptly -the end of any humans left to play. Eroticism does not declare the end of history-it denies that history ever began. Gerhard Knapp Munchen: Goldmann, The closing citation is from Kleist's essay "ijber das Marionettentheater.
Mit einem Wort, ich halte vie1 auf Goethe oder Shakespeare, aber sehr wenig auf Schiller. Juli Sein Buch darf weder sittlicher noch unsittlicher sein, als die Geschichte selbst". In an undated letter to. Gutzkow from the same period, he writes: "Das Verhaltnis zwischen Armen und Reichen ist das einzige revolutiontire Element in der Welt, der Hunger allein kann die Freiheits- gottin[ Niemeyer, Peter von Becker Frankfurt a.
New Approaches to Georg Buchner,ed. Plays like Wedekind's, Brecht's, or Frisch's, for all the "openness" of their form, are ultimately much more integrative, much less centrifugal, than Buchner's. Marion's role might not be quite so disconnected as this passage sug- gests-after all, it is under her influence that Danton decides to make love rather than to make history-but Reddick's observations are highly pertinent to the argument of this piece.
On the same page, citing Theo Buck, Niehoff writes: "Zwar 'strahlt' in Marions Erzahlung eine 'reine Utopie' auf, 'kuhn und leuchtend,' aber sicher treffen sich beide nicht in 'liebender communio. On the whole, this beautifully phrased analysis strikes me as very adequate to Buchner's writing.
However, Reddick's ap- proach invites a certain vagueness that clashes with Buchner's precision. True, Biichner "makes mosaic," but the pieces are identifi- able. Just is a faithful Hegelian, or that Buchner was an especially sophisticated reader of Hegel.
Acareful analysis of these parallels would most certainly reveal decisive, and unbridgeable, differences. The whole concept of "applying" Hegel, just to give an example, is alien to Hegel's writing himself, since every applica- tion of philosophy turns into the very dogma- tism Hegel opposes vigorously. Sie selbst hat sich in ihren Memoiren als eine geistvolle Erotomanin geschildert und nichts von ihren Lastern verborgen.
Gertrude Aretz, Glaub mir, bin keine Erotomanin , ich leide nicht an Nymphomanie,. Nur an einer Manie zu dir Ritter Adler, Dagmar Pruin, Die Titeldarstellerin versteht sich fabelhaft auf das Wechselspiel zwischen Damenhaftigkeit, Girly-Stil und hemmungsloser Erotomanin. Durchtriebene Figuren. Er verlegt die Handlung ganz ins Take care that you choose a knowledgeable orthodontist that has been able to improve the smile of many others in the St John area. These experts understand how important it is for their patients to get orthodontic help that leaves them highly confident in the way that they look at work or in personal interactions.
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